- Do not use idiomatic or colloquial vocabulary:dad, guy. Use father, man.
- Use vocabulary accurately. There is a difference between rule and law, or currency and money, which you are expected to know.
- Be as precise as possible when dealing with facts and figures. Avoid phrases such as about about a hundred years ago or hundreds of years ago. If it is necessary to estimate numbers use approximately rather than about.
- Conclusions should use tentative language. Avoid absolute statements such as: education reduces crime. Instead use cautious phrases: may reduce crime or tends to reduce crime.
- Do not contract verb forms: don't, can't. Use the full form:do not, cannot.
- Do not use question form such as: What were the reasons for the decline in wool exports? Instead use statements:There are four main reasons for the decline...
- Avoid numbering sections in your texts (except for reports). Use conjunctions and signposting expressions to introduce new sections.
- When writing lists, avoid using etc or and so on. Insert and before the last item: The forests of the twelfth century consisted of oak, ash and lime.
- Avoid using two-word verbs such as go on or bring up if there is a suitable synonyms. Use continue or raise.
- merely to restate it
- wording different, meaning the same.
- changing vocabulary
- changing word class
- changing word order